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Monday, October 4, 2010


The ASSURE Model


To become skilled in todays classrooms it is crucial to know when to use a wide range of instructional strategies and passive and interactive media. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, D. J., & Smaldino, E. S., (2002) stated to use media and technologies effectively a systematic plan for thier use is necessary. They suggest utilizing the ASSURE model as a guide, which identifies six major steps in an instructional planning process.  
The Assure Model is:       
Ø      A procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that integrates technology and media into the teaching process.
Ø      A systematic approach to writing lesson plans.
Ø      A plan used to help teachers organize instructional procedures.
Ø      A plan used to help teachers do an authentic assessment of student learning.
Ø     A model that can be used by all presenters.   

Analyze learners:   
General Characteristics 
 This is a description of the class as a whole. This includes such information as the number of students, grade or age level, gender, socioeconomic factors, exceptionalities, and cultural/ethnic/or other types of diversity.
Entry Competencies
This is a description of the types of knowledge expected of the learners.  Ask questions such as: Do the learners have the knowledge base required to enter the lesson? Do the learners have the entry competencies and technical vocabulary for this lesson? Have the learners already mastered the skills you are planning to teach? Do the learners have biases or misconceptions about the subject?

State Objectives
Statements describing what the learner will do as a result of instruction.  Things to keep in mind as you write your objectives are:

Ø      Focus on the learner, not the teacher

Ø      Use behaviors that reflect real world concerns

Ø      Objectives are descriptions of the learning outcomes and are written using the ABCD format.
Who is the audience? Specifies the learner(s) for whom the objective is intended.
What do you want them to do? The behavior or capability needs to be demonstrated as learner performance, an observable, measurable behavior, or a real-world skill.  Use an action verb from the helpful verbs list if you have difficulty doing this.

Under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skill being taught? Be sure to include equipment, tools, aids, or references the learner may or may not use, and/or special environmental conditions in which the learner has to perform. 
How well do you want them to demonstrate their mastery? Degree to which the new skill must be mastered or the criterion for acceptable performance (include time limit, range of accuracy, proportion of correct responses required, and/or qualitative standards.)
Examples of Objective Statements:
The Drama I class will be able to identify and draw stage directions using pencils and rulers with 100% accuracy.  (Or) The kindergarten class will identify the colors, red, green, and blue using blocks 9 out of 10 tries.  (Or) The Tenth grade English class will identify and discuss the effects of symbolism in the short story "Young Goodman Brown" using their text, Paper, and Pen in one hour.
Use as many objective statements needed in order to meet the different objectives for the lesson. Use the following questions to assess objectives.
Does the objective allow you to do the following with your lesson?
1.      Identify what the expectations are for the learner
2.      Identify the necessary requirements for the learning environment
3.      Assess learning
4.      Determine needs for appropriate media or materials
How would you classify your objective?  Is the learning outcome primarily:
1.      Cognitive?
2.      Affective?
3.      Psychomotor / Motor Skill?
4.      Interpersonal?
5.      Intrapersonal?
Select, modify, design Methods, Media, & Materials
This is the step where the Instructor will build a bridge between the audience and the objectives. You need to decide what method you will primarily use: a lecture, group work, a field trip, etc. What media you will use: photos, multimedia, video, a computer? Are you using store bought materials, getting an outside resource to provide materials, modifying something you already have, or making something from scratch?

Selection Criteria

Media Selection  
Ø      Media should be selected on the basis of student need.
Ø      We must consider the total learning situation.
Ø      Should follow learning objectives.
Ø      Must be appropriate for the teaching format.
Ø      Should be consistent with the students' capabilities and learning styles.
Ø      Should be chosen objectively.
Ø      Should be selected in order to best meet the learning outcomes.
Ø      No single medium is the total solution.
Ø      Does it match the curriculum?
Ø      Is it accurate and current?
Ø      Does it contain clear and concise language?
Ø      Will it motivate and maintain interest?
Ø      Does it provide for learner participation?
Ø      Is it of good technical quality?
Ø      Is there evidence of its effectiveness (e.g., field-test results)?
Ø      Is it free from objectionable bias and advertising
Ø      Is a user guide or other documentation included?  
Utilize Methods, Media, & Materials
Plan of how you are going to implement your media and materials. For each type of media and/or materials listed under Select, modify, and design describe in detail how you are going to implement them into your lesson to help your learners meet the lesson's objective.  Please write in full sentences; do this for each item.
In order to utilize materials correctly there are several steps to creating good student-centered instruction.
1.      Preview the material- Never use anything in class you havent thoroughly checked out.
2.      Prepare the material- Make sure you have everything you need and that it all works.
3.      Prepare the environment- Set up the classroom so that whatever youre doing will work in the space you have.
4.      Prepare the learners- Give the students an overview, explain how they can take this information and use it and how they will be evaluated up front.
5.      Provide the learning experience- Teaching is simply high theatre. Showmanship is part of the facilitators job. Teaching and learning should be an experience not an ordeal.
Require Learner Participation
Describe how you are going to get each learner "actively and individually involved in the lesson.  Ex:  games, group work, presentations, skit, etc.
Remember that the days of sage on the stage are gone. Our role in the classroom today is one of a guide on the side and students, especially with technology connected lessons, need to experience learning. All activities should provide opportunities to manipulate the information and allow time for practice during the demonstration of the skill. 
Evaluate and Revise
Describe how you will, in the future, measure whether or not the lesson objectives were met.  Were the media and the instruction effective?
Evaluate student performance:
How will you determine whether or not they met the lesson's objective?
The evaluation should match the objective. Some objectives can be adequately assessed with a pen and paper test. If the objectives call for demonstrating a process, creating a product, or developing an attitude, the evaluation will frequently require observing the behavior in action. 
Evaluate media components:
How will you determine the media effectiveness?    
Evaluate instructor performance:
How will you determine whether or not your own performance as instructor/facilitator was effective?

The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools.
It is an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model. Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model; other models include the Dick & Carey and Kemp ISD models. One commonly accepted improvement to this model is the use of rapid prototyping. This is the idea of receiving continual or formative feedback while instructional materials are being created. This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
Instructional theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. Theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials.

Analysis Phase

In the analysis phase, the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase:
  • Who are the learners and what are their characteristics?
  • What is the new behavioral outcome?
  • What types of learning constraints exist?
  • What are the delivery options?
  • What are the online pedagogical considerations?
  • What are the Adult Learning Theory considerations?
  • What is the timeline for project completion? 

 Design Phase

The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project's goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details.
These are steps involved in design phase:
  • Document the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy
  • Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor).
  • Design the user interface and user experience
  • Create prototype
  • Apply visual design (graphic design)
 The Development Phase

The development phase is where instructional designers and developers create and assemble the content assets that were blueprinted in the design phase. In this phase, storyboards and graphics are designed. If elearning is involved, programmers develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to the feedback received.

 The Implementation Phase

During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners includes training them on new tools (software or hardware) and student registration.
This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the books, hands-on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the learning application or website is functional.

The Evaluation Phase

The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users which were identified



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